We can summarize the process for obtaining a study visa in Canada as follows:

You must first obtain an acceptance letter from the Office of International Higher Education Services located in all recognized universities. Basically, you can obtain this letter from the Canadian universities’ websites
Apply for obtaining a student visa application package to Canada, either through the website of the Canadian Immigration, or through Residence Department or by contacting the local visa office, or Canadian embassies and consulates in the home country.

Furthermore, it is worth noting that in order to obtain a visa application package, you will need to answer some questions about yourself.
As a matter of fact, these questions will determine whether you are eligible for a study permit. Besides, you will be able to know the documents necessary for application.

You may also need to obtain a temporary residence permit, which people from certain countries can obtain. More information about these countries is available when visiting the Canadian Immigration and Residence Service.
If you are eligible, you will receive your own reference code. Basically, this code is only valid for 60 days.

Make sure to read the visa application guide, which will contain information about the estimated tuition fee, a list of documents that you will need to provide with your visa application, as well as some guidelines.
Once you have completed your documents, application form, and payment of your fees, you can send your completed application to the Canadian Immigration and Residence Department website.

At last, some applicants need to perform to do an interview at the local visa office in the home country.

source : canada.ca